Scientific Word Origins

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Root

Meaning

Example

a; an
not; without; lacking; deficient
abiotic; anaerobic
ab
away from; out from
abnormal
ad
to; toward
adhere
ana
up; back; again
anaphase
andro
male
androgen
angio
of seed
angiosperm
anth/o
flower
anthophyte
anti
against
antibody
anthropo
man; human
anthropology
aqu/a
of water
aquatic
archae
ancient
archaebateria
arthro; artio
jointed
arthropod
askos
sack; bag
ascospore
aster
star
asteroid
autos
self
autotroph
barb
beard
barbata
bene
wel; good
beneficial
bi
two
bipedal
bio
living; life
biology
brachi
upper arm; forelimb
bracium
bronch
windpipe
bronchioles
carn
flesh
carnivore
capill
hair
capillary
carp
fruit
carpel
caud
tail
caudal
centi
hundredth
centimeter
ceph
head
cephalopod
chloros
light green
chlorophyll
chondr
cartiliage
chondrocyte
chroma
pigmented
chromosome
cide
to kill
insecticide
circ
circular, cycle
circadian
cocc; coccus
seed; berry
streptococcus
coel
hollow
coelomate
con
together
convergent
cyst
sac; pouch; bladder
cystdenoma
cyte
cell; hollow container
cytoplasm
dactyl
finger
rhacodactylus
de
remove; away from
decompose
dendr
tree; branches
dendrites
dent
tooth
dentist
derm
skin
epidermis
di
two; double
diploid
dia
apart
diaphragm
dorm
sleep
dormitory
echino
spiny
echinoderm
eco
house
ecology
ecto
outside of
ectotherm
ella
small
organelle
endo
within
endosperm
epi
upon; above
epidermis
eu
true
eukaryote
exo
outside
exoskeleton
fer
to carry
conifer
fibr
thread; fiber
fibroblast
foli
leaf
foliage
gam
marriage
gamete
gastro
stomach
gastropod
geo
land; earth
geothermal
gen
kind
genotype
genesis
to originate
oogenesis
gon
reproductive
archigonium
gravi
heavy
gravitropism
gymn
naked
gymnosperm
gyn
female
gynecium
halo
salt
halophile
hapl
simple; single
haploid
hemi
half
hemisphere
hem
blood
hemoglobin
herb
vegetation
herbivore
hetero
different
heterozygous
hom(e)o
same
homeostasis
hom
human
hominid
hydro
water
hydrolysis
hyper
above; beyond; over
hypertonic
hypo
below; under; less
hypothermia
ichthy
fish
chondrichthyes
inter
between
interspecific
intra
within; inside
intracellular
is/o
equal; same
isotonic
jug
to join
jugular
kary
kernal; nucleus
karyotype
kera
hornlike
keratin
kine
move
kinesis
leuc
white
leucocyte
logy
study of
biology
lympho
water
lymphocyte
lysis
break up; slpit
hydrolysis
macro
large
macromolecule
mamm
breast
mammal
mega
great
megaspore
mela; melan
black; dark
melanocyte
meso
middle
mesophyll
meta
between; along; after
metaphase
micro
small
microscope
mito
thread
mitosis
mon/o
one; single
mononucleosis
morph
shape; form
morphology
my/o
muscle
myofibril
mycel
threadlike
mycelium
moll
soft
mollusc
nema
thread
nematode
neo
new; recent
neocortex
neuro
nerve
neuron
node
knot
nodule
nomy
system of laws
taxonomy
oligo
small; few
oligochaete
omni
all
onmivore
onc
tumor; mass
oncology
orni/s
bird
ornithology
oste/o
bone
osteocyte
oo/ ov
egg
oocyte; ovum
opthalm
eye
opthalmology
opt
eye
optometry
pachy
thick
pachyderm
paleo
old; ancient
paleontology
pan
all
pandemic
par/ para
beside
parathyroid
patho
suffering; disease
pathology
ped/ pod
feet; foot
pediatry; pseudopod
per
through
permeable
peri
around; about
peristalsis
phag/o
eating
phagosytosis
pheno
show
phenotype
phile
loving; fond of
hydrophylic
phot/o
light
photosynthesis
phyl
race; class
phylogeny
phyll
leaf
chlorophyll
phyte
plant
epiphyte
pinna
feather
pinnate
plasm; plast
form; form into
plasmodium
platy
flat
platyhelminthes
poly
many
polymer
post
after
posterior
pro
before; favoring
prokaryote
proto
first; primary
protocells
pseudo
false; fake
pseudopodium
pulmo
lung
pulminary
radi
ray
radius
re
again; back
reproduce
ren
kidney
renal
rhaco
spine; spike
rhacodactylus
rhizo
root
rhizoid
sacchar
sugar
monosaccharide
scope
to look
microscope
som; somat; some
body
lysosome
sperm
seed
gymnosperm
stasis
remain constant
homeostasis
stom
mouth; mouthlike opening
stomata
sym; syn
together
synapse
tax
arrange; put in order
taxonomy
telo
end
telophase
terr
of Earth
terrestrial
therm
heat
endotherm
thylak
sack; bag
thylakoid
tom
cut; slice
microtome
trans
across
transpiration
trich
hair
trichome
tropo
a change
gravitropism
trophic
nourishment
heterotrophic
ultra
beyond
ultraviolet
uni
one
unicellular
vacca
cow
vaccine
vas
vessel
vasodialation
vore
eat greedily; devour
omnivore
xanth
yellow
xanthophyll
xero
dry
xerophyte
xyl
wood
xylem
zoo; zoa
animal
zoology
zyg
joined together
zygote
zym
yeast; fermentation
zymolytic

Root Words pdf

Word Morphology assignment